State And Local Government
Governmental powers should be limited and their use must be subject to both internal and external checks. Governmental powers, however, also need to be adequate to the challenges that societies face, both domestic and foreign. In this connection, the Founders drew on what Hamilton in Federalist No. 9 called the “new science of politics” for guidance. This “new science” included a study of previous republics, to discover how to make government both free and effective.
The purpose of just government is to protect the rights of citizens against fellow citizens. Protection against fellow citizens means deterring crime by making and enforcing criminal law and making it clear to people who commit crimes that they are going to pay a penalty. Criminal law is needed because there are vicious and immoral human beings who try to take away the rights of other people. Though all governments enact laws, the creation of and adherence to those laws varies. In a monarchy or dictatorship, laws are promulgated by the ruler.
Defining government, however, is the starting point for any study of the United States governmental system. All governments have the purposes of establishing laws, providing order and security, protecting their people from external threats, and providing for the general welfare. Securing fundamental individual rights, as well as the rights of the people as a whole to govern themselves through consent is the principal object of the republic envisioned by the Founders like James Madison, James Wilson, Alexander Hamilton, and George Mason. We find in Federalist No. 10 , however, another characterization of what Madison calls the “first object” of government that is worthy of more consideration than it generally receives.
‘To insure domestic Tranquility’ – The government makes laws to discourage wrongdoing and keep society safe. It also enforces these laws, maintains order, resolves disputes, and punishes those who break the law, thereby allowing citizens to peacefully pursue their daily lives and hold on to their money and private property. The purpose of just government is to protect the rights of citizens from outsiders. There are those outside the nation’s citizenry who would seek to take away their rights. Protection means maintaining a strong national defense against foreign attack; adopting policies for armed forces, foreign policy, diplomacy, state-craft, negation, alliances. It means securing the borders of the nation against intrusion by non-citizens.
No longer were there tribes of extended families that could nonverbally agree to a small set of moralistic rules. Now, hundreds of people could be living and working in close quarters. Crops and goods would be stolen by less-successful nearby neighbors, dangers of other neighboring civilizations competing for the same resources loomed, and there was a clear lack of order.
The legitimate object of government, is to do for a community of people, whatever they need to have done, but can not do, at all, or can not, so well do, for themselves in their separate, and individual capacities. It depicts the protecting governing body that the people created. Symbolically, the Leviathan’s body is made out of the people who put their trust in it. Figure 2As these communes started forming, spreading through the continents, and communicating together, a need for structure grew in order to maintain these growing systems.
The relationship of government to markets is an ongoing one that requires continual intervention from government to maintain order and stability. The fact that this has not occurred — or at least not yet — is the result of government’s continuing ability to intervene, moderating the disruptive impacts of the ever-changing market economy. Government in a democracy is essentially a conservative institution. It is responsible for creating and sustaining markets, enforcing contracts, protecting private property, and producing systems of education and infrastructure that allow commerce to function efficiently. In Western democracies, we disagree about whether the state should provide things like healthcare and higher education, and whether the state should take an active role in shielding individuals from undesirable behavior ranging from not wearing seatbelts to drug use.
Ethics is a system of principles that helps us tell right from wrong, good from bad. We constantly face choices that affect the quality of our lives. We are aware that the choices that we make have consequences, both for ourselves and others. The ethical principles that nurses must adhere to are the principles of justice, beneficence, nonmaleficence, accountability, fidelity, autonomy, and veracity. Nurses must be fair when they distribute care, for example, among the patients in the group of patients that they are taking care of. Moral Principles The five principles, autonomy, justice, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and fidelity are each absolute truths in and of themselves.